The State of Washington

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Much of a hot spot’s energy is expended in thinning the plate above it. Where the plate is already thin, most of the energy will appear at the surface in outpourings such as lava flows. When a plume has to come up through thick old craton, it makes kimberlites, carbonatites, gas-rich blowouts. The plume is expressing itself as a diatreme, the extremely focussed volcanic event that brings diamonds out of the mantle and explodes them into the air at Mach 2. The conduit is called a pipe because it is so narrow. The rock left inside it after the explosion is kimberlite. When Bermuda was under Kansas, it sent up the Riley County kimberlites. For many years, these diamond pipes were described as cryptovolcanic structures, meaning that nobody knew what they were. Later, they were thought to be meteorite zakelijke energie strikes. In i975, in Riley County, a hole was drilled with a tungsten-carbide bit that could smoothly cut its way through anything but diamonds. It went down sixty feet, where all penetration ceased. The bit was pulled. It was grooved and scarred. There are “meteor impacts” along the Bermuda track in Tennessee, southern Kentucky, and Missouri. Morgan thinks they are diatremes, or, as he puts it, “hot-spot blasts.” They lie in a matrix of Paleozoic rock. If in fact they are meteor impacts, the hot spot would have lifted up the country and caused the erosion that exposed them to view. In Morgan’s summation, “the thing works for me either way.” When Bermuda was under Wyoming, in Neocomian time, the Rockies did not exist, but the magmas of the Idaho batholith had recently come in, a short distance up the track. When Bermuda was under the State of Washington, the State of Washington was blue ocean. If the track is followed back to two hundred million years, Bermuda seems to have been under Yakutat, Alaska. Hearing most of this for the first time at zakelijke energie vergelijken a colloquium in Princeton, a graduate student said, “This is like playing chess without the rules.” During the past twenty million years, the region that we like to call the Old West is thought to have been passing over not one but two hot spots, which have done much to affect the appearance of the whole terrain.